In the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, in all other industrialized countries, closed in-store sourcing is rarely in a written contract, but in some sectors union members are expected to do their work before working alongside non-unionists. British printers, dockworkers and miners are looking for it so often that employers rarely try to hire non-unionized workers. In the various countries of Northern Europe, employment services agreements are generally concluded between large industrial sectors and a number of trade unions. In Britain, where union membership is taken for granted, the closed store has not been as controversial as in the United States. Indeed, UK boards of government and commissions traditionally expect unions to represent all workers in the same sector. Dunn and Gennard found 111 British redundancies when a closed store was introduced, 325 people were involved,:125, and they stated: “While supporters of the closed store can argue that it is estimated that at least 325 layoffs are a relatively small number of closed shops compared to the total population, critics would consider this figure to be substantial, arguing that dismissal is too much.” :126 With regard to the store closed before entry, they stated: “Its raison d`être is to exclude people from jobs by denying them union membership.” 132 Janus stated that he did not have to pay fees to the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees because it was a payment of political discourse with which Janus disagreed.  This was authorized following a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Abood v. Detroit Board of Education in 1977. The outcome of the case was favourable to Janus and, as such, non-union members cannot be required to pay fees in accordance with a fair sharing agreement that is in force with respect to a union.
The main difference between an open store and a closed store is the requirement for union membership.  There are many opinions on the benefits and negatives of open business. In February 2015, Illinois Republican Gov. Bruce Rauner filed a complaint claiming that fair sharing agreements were unconstitutional and a violation of the First Amendment`s right to freedom of expression. A collective agreement (sometimes called CBA) is an agreement negotiated between a union and an employer that sets the terms and conditions of employment of workers who are members of that union.