The agreement requires rich nations to meet a funding commitment of $100 billion a year beyond 2020 and to use that figure as a “land” for the additional aid agreed until 2025. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. The 32-part document sets out a framework for global action on climate change, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, support for developing countries and transparency of reporting, and strengthening climate change goals. Here`s what to do: The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on mandatory country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions.
The Paris Agreement is an ambitious, dynamic and universal agreement. It covers all countries and emissions and is designed for total time. This is a monumental agreement. It strengthens international cooperation on climate change. It offers a way forward. In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognizes that states have common but differentiated responsibilities, i.e. according to their national capabilities and specificities. There is a scientific justification for this figure. John Schellnhuber, a scientist who advises Germany and the Vatican, says the 1.5C marks the point where there is a real risk of serious “tipping points” in the global climate. Funding is essential to support emerging economies and support the transition to carbon-free economies.